Tuesday, 3 June 2014


Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)!
What is an ACL Injury?
How does it Happen?
Do you need a Surgery?

Often people ask such questions, but this is a information on ACL that I would like to share with everyone.

1) ACL tear is mainly caused by sports injury which affects the knee and is
characterized by tearing of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament.

2) A Ligament is a strong band of connective tissue which attaches bone to bone
and provides the stability of your knee.

3) The ACL is situated within the knee joint and is responsible for joining back of the
distal femur to the front of the proximal tibia.

4) The ACL prevents excessive twisting, straightening (hyper-extension) of the knee
and forward movement of the tibia on the femur. When these movements are
excessive and beyond what the ACL can withstand, tearing to the ACL occurs.

5) ACL tear may range from small partial tear resulting in minimal pain to a complete
rupture of the ACL resulting in pain and disability- requires Rehabilitation and
potentially surgery.

6) Grades of an ACL Tear :-
(A) Grade 1 Tear- A small number of fibers are torn resulting in some pain
but allowing full function.
(B) Grade 2 Tear- Significant number of fibers are torn with moderate loss
of function.
(C) Grade 3 Tear- All fibers are ruptures resulting in knee instability and
major loss of function.
- Comprehensive Rehabilitation is required to return to
full sporting activity and often surgery is performed to
reconstruct the ligament.

7) Factors of an ACL Tear :-
(A) Previous history of an ACL injury
(B) Muscle weakness
(C) Muscle Strength Imbalance
(D) Poor co-ordination or jumping and landing strategies
(E) Inappropriate footwear
(F) Lower Limb Posture- Increased in Q angle
- Genu Valgum
- Pronated Feet
(G) Pregnancy- Increases ligament laxity
(H) Mid menstrual cycle- Increased risk at ovulation due to hormonal
changes causing increase in ligament laxity

8) Aim of a Physiotherapist :-
(A) Reduce pain and swelling
(B) Normalize Range of motion
(C) Minimize your chances of re-injury
(D) Complete Recovery
(E) Returning back to sports and daily life activity without pain

9) Rehabilitation is necessary to re-store the knee to full function either post injury or
post surgery.

Melvinder @ Mel
Physiotherapist and Personal Trainer

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